The hierarchy of microstructure parameters affecting the tensile ductility in centrifugally cast and forged Ti-834 alloy during high temperature exposure in air

Ductility regression is the main concern in using Ti-834 titanium alloy at temperatures above 500 °C for aerospace applications. The reduction of ductility in titanium alloys at high temperatures is strongly correlated to the exposure time. In the current study the effect of prolonged exposure at 500 °C on the tensile ductility of two differently processed Ti-834 alloys was investigated. In order to simulate actual Ti-834 processing routes, forged and centrifugally cast materials were used. The tensile tests were conducted on various specimens exposed at 500 °C for 100, 200 and 500 h to observe microstructure feature changes. Moreover, the effect of microstructure, microtexture, α-case, α2 and silicide precipitate coarsening during high temperature exposure was studied thoroughly. The cast alloy was found to have a minimum ductility and failed at 1.8% strain after exposure at 500 °C/500 h when the α-case layer was retained during testing, whilst, the ductility of the forged alloy was unaffected. The effects of individual microstructural parameters on the ductility regression in Ti-834 alloy were quantified. The results showed that 7.1% strain differences between the cast and forged alloy are related to microstructural variations including; morphology, lath widths, grain size and shape, grain orientations and microtexture. A total of 9.6% strain loss was observed in centrifugally cast Ti-834 after aging at 500 °C/500 h and quantified as follow; 3.6% due to a-case formation during high temperature exposure, 0.2% due to α2– precipitates coarsening, 4.4% due to further silicide formation and coarsening, 1.4% due to additional microstructure changes during high temperature exposure. Furthermore, silicide coarsening on α/β phase boundaries caused large void formation around the precipitates. A theoretical model supported by experimental observations for silicide precipitation in fully colony and duplex microstructures was established. The element partitioning during exposure caused Al and Ti depletion in the vicinity of the β phase in the lamellae, i.e., as area. This resulted in lowering the strength of the alloy and facilitated the formation of Ti3(SiZr)2 precipitates. The Al depletion and nano-scale partitioning observed at the αs/β boundaries resulted in easy crack initiation and promoted propagation in the centrifugally cast colony microstructure and reduced the basal slip tcrss. Furthermore, silicides were not formed in αp (high Al, Ti and low Zr areas) in the forged duplex microstructure that promoted superior mechanical performance and ductility over the cast alloy


P. Daviesa , R. Pedersonb , M. Colemana, S. Biroscaa

a. Institute of Structural Materials, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN, United Kingdom
b. Research and Technology Centre, GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden, SE-46181, Trollhattan, Sweden

Acta Materialia, 2016, Vol. 117, Pages 51 – 67, doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.07.015